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The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) was created in 2001 on the basis of the "Shanghai five" mechanism, after signing by heads of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China, Russia and Tajikistan Agreements on strengthening of measures of trust in military area around border (1996, Shanghai) and Agreements on mutual reduction of armed forces around border (1997, Moscow).

According to SCO Charter (signed in June 7, 2002) the main goals of the Organization are strengthening of mutual trust, friendship and neighborliness, encouragement of effective cooperation in political, trade and economic, scientific and technical, cultural, educational, power, transport, ecological and other areas.

Present members of SCO are Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, Observers-states – Afghanistan ,Belarus, India, Iran, Mongolia, Pakistan.

Dialogue partners –Azerbaijan,Armenia, Cambodia, Nepal, Sri Lanka,Turkey.

Shanghai Cooperation Organization is not a closed alliance or military block, directed against any other states; it is open organization, focused on broad international cooperation, including possibility of enlargement.

The main goals of SCO at present are maintaining peace, stability and safety in the region, development of economic and humanitarian cooperation.  

The Council of Heads of State is the supreme SCO body. It determines priorities and defines major areas of activities of the Organization, decides upon the fundamental issues of its internal arrangement and functioning and its interaction with other States and international organizations, as well as considers the most topical international issues.

The Council of Heads of Government (Prime Ministers) approves the budget of the Organization, considers and decides upon major issues related to particular, especially economic, spheres of interaction within the Organization.

The Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs considers issues related to day-to-day activities of the Organization, preparation of meetings of the Council of Heads of State and holding of consultations on international problems within the Organization. The Council may, as appropriate, make statements on behalf of SCO.

The Council of National Coordinators of SCO Member State is a SCO body that coordinates and directs day-to-day activities of the Organization. It makes the necessary preparation for the meetings of the Council of Heads of State, the Council of Heads of Government (Prime Ministers) and the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs. A meeting of the Council is chaired by the national coordinator of the Member State on whose territory the regular meeting of the Council of Heads of State takes place.

In solving organization’s main problem themost important role play SCO permanent bodies – the Secretariat of Organization in Beijing and Executive Committee of Regional counterterrorist structure (RCTS) in Tashkent.

SCO Secretary General and Director of Executive Committee of RCTS are appointed from among the nationals of member States on a rotational basis in the Russian alphabetic order of the member States' names for a period of three years without a right to be reappointed for another period.

From January 2016 Secretary General of SCO is Rashid Alimov (representative of Republic of Tajikistan), Director of Executive Committee of RCTS is EvgeniySysoev (representative of Russian Federation).

According to the practice, chairmanship in Organization is accomplished during the one year period starting from the date of the last ordinary meeting of the Council of Heads of State to the date of the next ordinary meeting of the Council of Heads of State on the territory of SCO Chairing state. The Republic of Uzbekistan held the SCO Chairmanship from Jule 2015till nowadays

. The Republic of Kazakhstan assumed Chairmanship of Organization in june 2016.

SCO basic documents

* SCO Charter

* Declaration on the Establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization

* Shanghai Convention on Combating Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism

* Treaty of the Long-term Good Neighborly and Friendly Cooperation among Member States of the SCO

* Rules of procedures of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization

* Statute of the Secretariat of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization

*Agreement between the Member States of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization on the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure

*Regulations on Observer Status at the Shanghai Cooperation Organization

* Regulations on the Status of Dialogue Partner of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization

Member states:

Kazakhstan

China

Kyrgyzstan

Russia

Tajikistan

Uzbekistan

Observers:

Afghanistan

Belarus

India

Iran

Mongolia

Pakistan

Dialogue partners:

Azerbaijan

Turkey

Cambodia

Nepal

Sri Lanka

Turkey.