Collective Security Treaty Organization
At the current stage, the provision of security and stability is an urgent challenge not only for the Central Asian region, but for the entire world community.
The Republic of Kazakhstan consistently advocates the creation of conditions ensuring stability and security in the country and region, allowing to cope with new challenges and threats on the basis of international law and to address the issues of early-warning and prevention of emerging threats, elimination of root causes, underlying them.
Currently, the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) is one of the tools of cooperation and coordination of work to promote stability and security in the region.
CSTO is an international regional organization, which brings together Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan.
The Organization is aimed to strengthen peace, international and regional security and stability, to protect collectively independence, territorial integrity and sovereignty of the member-states, in the attainment of which the member-states give priority to political means.
In its activities the Organization cooperates with non-member states, maintains relationships with international interstate organizations, active in the field of security. The Organization supports the establishment of a fair, democratic world order, based on mutually recognized principles of international law.
The Collective Security Council (CSC) is the highest body of the Organization. The Council considers important issues of the Organization and makes decisions, focused on implementing its goals and objectives, as well as ensures coordination and joint activities between the member states to achieve these aims. The Council composed of the heads of member-states.
Between the sessions of the CSC, the Permanent Council, represented by permanent and authorized representatives of the Organization’s member states, is responsible to harmonize interactions between the member states for implementing the decisions, taken by the Organization’s bodies.
The Council of Foreign Ministers is a consultative and executive body of the Organization on issues of cooperation among the member states in the field of foreign policy.
The Council of Defense Ministers is a consultative and executive body of the Organization on issues of cooperation among the member states in the field of military policy, military development and military technical cooperation.
The Committee of Secretaries of Security Councils is a consultative and executive body of the Organization on issues of cooperation among the member states in the field of provision of their national security.
The Organization’s Secretary General is the highest administrative official of the Organization and manages the Secretariat of the Organization. The Secretary General shall be appointed from among the citizens of the member states by the CSC’s decision and is accountable to the Council.
The Secretariat of the Organization is a permanent working body of the Organization for managerial, information, analytical and consultative activities of the Organization’s bodies.
The CSTO Joint Staff is another permanent working body of the Organization, which has been operational since 2004 and is responsible for the preparation of proposals and implementation of decisions with respect to military issues of the Collective Security Treaty Organization.
Areas of activities
The Charter of the CSTO defines three major areas of the Organization’s activities: political cooperation, military cooperation and countering new challenges and threats.
According to article 9 of the CSTO Charter, there is a mechanism of regular political consultations within the Organization, which deals with the assessments of the situation in the zone of the CSTO responsibility, development of common positions and finding joint approaches towards topical issues of the world agenda, harmonization of collective statements.
Cooperation with other international organizations at the working level is being developed. There were signed memorandums (protocols) on cooperation with the UN, SCO, CIS, Union State, Colombo Plan, SCO Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure and Coordination Service of the Council of Border Troops Commanders of the CIS.
The mechanism for exchange of opinions on a broad range of issues of common interest between highest administrative officials of the CSTO, CIS and SCO was established.
Despite the importance and priority of collective political actions for meeting the challenges faced by the Organization, the specifics of the CSTO is the availability of a viable force potential for responding on a wide spectrum of traditional and modern challenges and threats in the Eurasian region.
At the present moment, the military (force) component of the Organization includes Collective operational response forces and Peacekeeping forces, established on a broad coalition basis, as well as regional forces groupings and means of collective security: The Collective Rapid Deployment Forces of the Central Asian region, Regional Russian-Belarusian forces grouping of the Eastern European region, Unified Russian-Armenian forces grouping of the Caucasus region. The Unified Air Defense System of Russia and Belarus is operating, the Unified Air Defense System of Russia and Kazakhstan was created, the Regional Air Defense System of Russia and Armenia is under the establishment. Collective Air Forces were put into place.
There are annual joint trainings with Collective Operational Response Forces Vzaimodeistvie (Interaction) and Peacekeeping forces Nerushimoe Bratstvo (Unbreakable Brotherhood). Active work is under way on technical upgrading of military contingents and law enforcement and intelligence units. Military products are being procured and supplied under favorable terms.
Activities are continuing to strengthen military and economic collaboration. The training system for military personnel in different areas has been established and has been improving.
Countering new challenges and threats
Since the decision was made to add a multifunctional character to the CSTO, the Organization has been increasing its contribution to meeting regional challenges and threats. The necessary coordination mechanisms have been created and are successfully operating to harmonize national activities. The CSTO overarching objective is to achieve practical intercommunication between the relevant services, provide an opportunity of day-to-day cooperation among front line officers, and obtain real dividends from ongoing efforts. For these purposes, collective special preventive training operations are being conducted on a regular basis.
Fight against drug trafficking is an essential practical sphere of the Organization’s efforts. The Coordinating Council of Heads of Competent Authorities on Countering Illegal Drug Trafficking under the aegis of the Organization conducts the Regional Counter Narcotics Continuous Operations “Kanal” (Channel), which are aimed to detect and block drug smuggling routes, suppress the activities of clandestine laboratories, prevent the leakage of precursors into illicit circulation, undermine the economic foundations of drug trafficking. Members of drug control agencies, internal affairs bodies (police), border guards, customs, state (national) security and financial intelligence units of the Organization’s member states are involved in the operation. Representatives of some 30 non-member states, including the USA, European Union countries, a number of Latin American states, as well as experts of international organizations: OSCE, Interpol and Europol participate in the operation as observers.
Under the management of the Coordinating Council of Heads of Competent Authorities on Countering Illegal Migration, coordinated preventive training operations and special events on countering illegal migration are being held, which stipulate common efforts to intercept the flow of illegal migration of third-country nationals and curb criminal activities, supporting the traffic of persons and organized groups Nelegal (Illegal).
There are joint actions in the field of international information security. Cooperation between units of special security and internal affairs bodies is intensively developing to suppress crimes in the area of modern information technologies within the operation “Proxy”.
It was decided that the creation of Collective Operational Response Forces was necessary to enforce security of the CSTO member states in the light of existing and potential threats, including terrorism, extremism, drug trafficking and other types of crimes.
The adoption of the above documents and the work already accomplished through the ministries of defense, foreign affairs, intelligence agencies, security councils resulted in increasing of the CSTO performance, its adaptation to the modern geopolitical and military-political conditions, and development of concrete mechanisms to implement adopted agreements.