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Cooperation between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation in the field of use and protection of transboundary waters is carried out on 20 transboundary rivers, of which the main ones are the Ural, the Ishim, the Tobol , the Irtysh , the Bolshoy Uzen and the Malyi Uzen.

The legal base of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation in the field of use and protection of transboundary waters consists of the following documents:

1) Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Government of the Russian Federation on joint use and protection of transboundary waters signed September 7, 2010 (instead of the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Government of the Russian Federation on joint use and protection of transboundary waters of August 27, 1992 );

2) Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Government of the Russian Federation on cooperation in the field of environmental protection of December 22, 2004.

At the present time the Kazakhstan-Russian Commission on joint use and protection of transboundary waters (hereinafter - the Commission) is functioning. During the period from 1993 to 2015, 23 meetings of the Commission were held.

The Co-Chairmen of the Commission are the Vice-Minister of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Deputy Head of the Federal Agency of Water Resources of the Russian Federation.

Within the framework of the Commission the following working groups are established:

1) Working Group on the Ural River basin;
2) Working Group on the Irtysh River basin;
3) Working Group on the Ishim River basin;
4) Working Group on the Tobol River basin; 
5) Working Group on the Bolshoy and Malyi Uzen Rivers basin;
6) Working Group on the Kigach Branch (the Volga River).

The significant progress in bilateral water cooperation was achieved due to the meetings of the Commission and its working groups. During the consultations special focus is given to preservation of ecosystems of transboundary rivers.

The Commission considers issues regarding the condition and the results of monitoring of transboundary rivers water resources, carrying out joint inspections of enterprises business activities, which affects on water resources, flood discharge, reservoir storage and conditions of water supply of people and industry.